by Paul Batters
Recently, Harrison Ford made an interesting declaration regarding one of his most iconic characters, which is also part of one cinema’s most financially successful franchises – Indiana Jones. Famously close-mouthed about previous roles, the actor made the comment in anticipation of the Disney announcement that a 5th instalment of the Indiana Jones franchise would be released in July 2021. Basically, Ford claimed the role as permanently his, stating:
‘Nobody else is gonna be Indiana Jones! Don’t you get it? I’m Indiana Jones. When I’m gone, he’s gone…’
Whether this declaration is tongue-in-cheek or serious, I cannot ascertain nor does it particularly matter for the purpose of this article. The vast majority of fans would probably agree with Ford, as Indiana Jones is one of cinema’s most loved action heroes. (If his friend George Lucas is anything to go by, there is little to be held sacred in remaking or re-hashing films. Star Wars, anyone?)
But it does raise an interesting question – are there screen characters which should never be re-visited?
It’s also a polarising question and one which probably raises another more divisive question – should classic films be re-made? Cinema is certainly in a strange place at the moment, and there have been consistent attacks on the state of film-making with criticism aimed at the lack of creativity, the focus on special effects and CGI and particularly the obsession on re-makes. The Marvel and DC domination has been discussed ad nauseam and the recent Godzilla movie speaks to this issue as well. (What’s the current tally of Godzilla movies since the 1954 original?)
The criticisms are not unfounded, and this reviewer certainly agrees with the aforementioned sentiments regarding cinema’s current sins. However, are these problems simply a contemporary phenomenon? Or has Hollywood been re-making films and re-casting iconic roles since its’ earliest days?
Indeed, the ‘re-make’ has been a part of entertainment that goes back to ancient times. Initially, the ancient Greeks, who created the concept of drama, would see performances only the once and their plays were unique, one-off experiences. However, over time, those plays were performed again and again, particularly during the Hellenistic period. It was also meant that those plays stayed alive and they are still with us today. Consider the plays of Shakespeare. They have been performed, interpreted and even changed (depending on context) since Elizabethan times. King Lear has been interpreted through a whole range of approaches from a medieval Japan context to one set with 1950s Eastern Bloc /Cold War aesthetics! The richness of these stories in language, theme, character and emotion are still alive because they have been performed for hundreds of years. And of course, the Bard’s stories have been interpreted for the screen. Think Olivier’s 1945 film version of Henry V, which is often considered one of the finest screen interpretations of the play. Does this become the one and only version, never to be remade? What of Baz Lurhman’s Romeo And Juliet (1995)? It is not the first nor will it be the last telling of the tragic story of two star-crossed lovers.
The truth is that some of our most loved, revered and celebrated films are remakes, whether we realise it or not. We often chide Hollywood for remaking films within only a few years of each other but actually it’s been a practice since the silent days. By the time, Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde was made in 1932 at Paramount, the story had been filmed at least 8 times, with three versions being made in one year! (1920 to be precise, two in the U.S and one in Germany). John Barrymore’s 1920 turn as the infamous dual personality was a benchmark performance but March as the doomed doctor is perhaps the most superb in sound film history, with even the great Spencer Tracy unable to reach audiences in the 1941 version with Ingrid Bergman.
The same is true for quite a number of films based on classic literature such as A Tale Of Two Cities, Treasure Island, The Three Musketeers and A Christmas Carol – all being filmed numerous times. By the 1935 MGM version, David Copperfield had been made 3 times. The story of Oliver Twist was on its’ 8thversion in the loved 1968 musical Oliver!(with the film being made 6 times during the silent era!). William Wyler’s Ben Hur is often cited as the greatest epic ever made and a standard by which other ‘big films’ are measured. Yet it too is a remake of the 1925 silent epic starring Roman Navarro and Francis X. Bushman. (Ironically, the recent remake of Ben Hur was critically panned and financially an unmitigated disaster).
Interestingly enough, Cecil B. deMille is an example of a director who revisited earlier films he had made and gave them a new perspective. The Squaw Man (1914) would be remade two more times in 1918 and 1931! Of all the films he made, his most celebrated, known and loved is his final film, The Ten Commandments (1956), a far superior remake of his own 1923 silent version. In this case, the original is not the best. The 1956 version is the quintessential epic tale, resplendent in Technicolor, with all the kitsch, pageantry and excitement of Biblical proportions that are synonymous with deMille and the epic film.
But not only have epics and tales from classic literature been remade to great or greater success. Contemporary stories have been revisited as well. In the world of film noir, one film which justifiably makes every top five list was on its third remake when it was redone by John Huston. The Maltese Falcon (1941) remains one of the greatest films ever made, far out-pacing it’s prior two incarnations which would have become little more than a footnote in cinema history. The previous 1931 same-titled version starring Ricardo Cortez and Bebe Daniels is a little stilted, whilst its’ 1936 remake, Satan Met A Lady, starring William Warren and Bette Davis feels more like a typical Warner Bros. programmer and was even considered by critics at the time, such as Bosley Crowther, as ‘inferior to the original’. Neither are remarkable and again, the original is not the best. Huston’s version of the Dashiell Hammett pulp fiction novel, would help to create the tropes and cinematic expression for film noir, and Bogart’s performance as private eye, Sam Spade has become legendary and would make him a star.
Unfortunately, there is sometimes an element of exploitation that comes with the remake. But Hollywood is a business and driven by profit. If an audience responds, then it the film is deemed a success. The horror genre is one where the remake is a constant, driven by the profit margin rather than artistic merit. That has certainly been the impression felt with Universal’s recent attempt at ‘re-booting’ the classic Universal monsters with disastrous results. (This writer feels that Universal was making an attempt to trash its’ legacy!) The classic monsters were first seen in monochrome but would be remade in the 1950s and 1960s in Britain by Hammer Studios, complete with full-blown colour, gore and sex. Exploitive? Perhaps. Yet audiences saw a new interpretation of the undead Transylvanian count – from a dream-like, hypnotic and slow-speaking Lugosi to an animalistic and vivid Christopher Lee, complete with bloodied fangs. Horror fans often find it difficult to choose, with the character of Dracula ‘belonging’ to both actors. Yet Lee would be less successful with the Frankenstein monster, as would many who preceded and followed Lee, and the monster has been firmly associated with the brilliant performance of Boris Karloff in the original 1932 film and its’ two sequels. Still, the Hammer remakes resonated with audiences, offering something new and exciting.
Yet there are characters that belong to certain actors and actresses and their ownership of those performances are complete. It is impossible to think of anyone else but Vivien Leigh as Scarlett O’Hara or for that matter, Clark Gable as Rhett Butler. And of course, Gone With The Wind is a film that no-one would dare remake. The same could be said for Casablanca,again a film with iconic performances from Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, a song that had stood the test of time in its’ poignant definition of love and of course some of cinema’s most famous lines. How could it be remade? The story of Robin Hood has been told numerous times, with mixed results and mixed reviews. Arguably, the role was firmly identified with Douglas Fairbanks Snr, one of the great silent stars, after his 1922 film was a huge hit; until Warner Bros. remade the film in full colour in 1938, with Errol Flynn. A natural for the role, Flynn has owned the role since, despite numerous A-listers taking on the role over the decades.
There are countless other roles and films which, if recast or remade, would results in loud cries of protest. And perhaps rightfully so. Could The Wizard Of Oz be remade? (Actually, it, too is a remake!) How about Edward G. Robinson as ‘Little’ Caesar Bandello? Imagine a ‘reboot’ of Chaplin’s work. Or Hitchcock’s films. (It’s been done!) Singin’ In The Rain? Double Indemnity? The Godfather? Metropolis? Duck Soup? Some Like It Hot?
In the end, a remake will work or fail if it resonates with the audience. For better or for worse, that’s the lowest common denominator that determines a film’s eventual worth andif it will stand the test of time. For silent films (and indeed even some sound films from the golden years of Hollywood), this has proved difficult. Aside from cinephiles and classic film lovers, silent films find difficulty in gaining traction in a mainstream market and for audiences not exposed to silent film. Additionally, we have audiences trained to expect blockbuster films over-cooked with CGI and action every 30 seconds. A silent film, without sound, colour and very different contexts finds it difficult to gain a foothold.
But all the technological advancements in the world cannot replicate, re-design or replace the impact of story.
It takes a fair amount of courage and risk when a remake is given the green light. It means big shoes to fill and an attempt to draw out a performance from under the giant shadow of its’ predecessor. Cinematic history shows that it does happen. But there are films that are like classic works of art. Can a work by Monet or Dali be redone? Should a piece of music by Mozart or Brahms be re-written? And the importance of textual integrity cannot be over-stated either. The recent tragedy of the near destruction of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, will see deep discussion and debate on how to ‘remake’ what has been lost or damaged. Will it be in keeping with the historic and architectural integrity of the building? Will it be true to the cathedral’s past whilst reflecting the modern era (or does it have to)? And how will people react in the present and in the future to any change or lack of change?
The remaking of classic film shares a similar dilemma.
There are advantages to classic films being remade. It sounds almost unthinkable but Nosferatu (1922) would be successfully remade by Werner Herzog (in an English AND German version!) in 1979 with the famed Klaus Kinski in the title role, to great critical and commercial success. It is an impressive film, with stunning visuals, incredibly deep pathos and emotion, and Kinski is outstanding as the vampire. As a result, it also brought new interest in the original 1922 film. If remakes can arouse interest, educate audiences and broaden the experience of cinema, whilst offering a new and exciting perspective/interpretation, then it serves a great purpose.
But just because classic films can be remade, does not mean that they shouldbe. As already mentioned, Universal came close to trashing their own legacy with the attempted (and hopefully permanently aborted) reboot of the classic horror monsters, which felt watching someone take fluorescent spray cans to the Sistine Chapel. But as audiences, we do need to set aside prejudged notions and allow for new interpretations of stories. This is what provides a richness to cinema and art. Multiple and contemporary readings offer greater insights and new interpretations offer inclusivity to modern and future audiences – and there is great value in that prospect.
But new is not enough. ‘New’ for the sake of ‘new’ does not do justice to a work of art. Nor does new mean better. What is also important to recognise is that masterpieces do not and cannot be replicated. Nor do they need to be. We can already enjoy what exists, revisit them time and time again and walk away re-spirited, revitalised and emotionally moved.
Paul Batters teaches secondary school History in the Illawarra region and also lectures at the University Of Wollongong. In a previous life, he was involved in community radio and independent publications. Looking to a career in writing, Paul also has a passion for film history.
13 thoughts on “To remake or not to remake? The question on rebooting classic film.”
To me, Michael Caine had it right when it comes to remakes. He said one should only remake bad movies, so you have room to improve them. Re-making good movies usually only means making them worse.
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I completely agree! Sometimes remakes of good movies are cringing.
Paul, this is an excellent post, and a good discussion in the comments, too.
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You must be pretty uncomfortable sitting on that fence!
I’m firmly in the anti-remake faction and, yes, I know there were plenty of “remakes” in the Hollywood studio era. But I think there are some significant points that you haven’t raised.
One is that there’s an enormous difference between a film that simply remakes an existing one, and a film that’s only based on the same material as an existing one. A reasonable sized novel can have far more material than can be squeezed even into a relatively faithful film, so it’s quite possible for a newer version to improve on an earlier one, simply through being more faithful or having a longer running time.
It’s also possible to take a slightly different view of the same material, as with the Olivier vs Branagh films of Henry V, or with the Hammer vs Universal versions of Frankenstein. A film can even pervert or alter the nature of its source material, as with the Goldwyn/Wyler Wuthering Heights or the 1950s version of The Quiet American, so there’s still room for alternative or more faithful takes on the same material. In my view these types of films are not remakes, they are just based on, or are inspired by, the same book or play.
A film is usually only a couple of hours long, so there’s not the same amount of material to work with as there is with a novel. True remakes of earlier films are likely to be thin and underwhelming for that reason, whereas a new version of a doorstop sized Dickens novel could have a lot of material to use that never appeared in earlier versions.
There’s an even bigger difference with historical material or myths and legends, like Robin Hood. Is Robin and Marian a remake of The Adventures of Robin Hood? Or King Arthur a remake of Excalibur? Not really.
Hollywood also makes less films now than in the studio era, so the remakes make up a larger proportion of the output, especially as the remakes are generally A pictures now, rather than B pictures or programmers as they might have been in the past. In the past remakes often came about because they were considered to be a solid story that could be used again (and many studio era films were disguised remakes with different titles and character names). Remakes now come about because they are considered low risk, as they already have brand recognition. A remake might use the title and maybe the theme tune of the original, but not much else. These types of films are usually just trying to get a free ride on a more famous one’s coat tails.
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Oh I’m very comfortable where I’m sitting! Not so much on the fence but standing at the gate. My main aim was to discuss rather than take a side and encourage discussion, which appears to have succeeded in the excellent points that you raised. And yes we have two very different industries today with many different variables. For the record, I’m not a huge fan of remakes and as you point out they usually get a free ride on a more famous ones‘ coat tails. Nice turn of phrase!
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Different versions of the same novel or play do not bother me. After all, it is my choice to watch or not.
I enjoy The Front Page, 1931 and I love His Girl Friday, 1940. I love The Strawberry Blonde, 1940 and was disappointed with One Sunday Afternoon, 1933. I have grown less fond of High Sierra, 1941 the more I watch Colorado Territory, 1949. I never cared for To Have and Have Not, 1944. I was waiting for The Breaking Point, 1950. My movie viewing experience would be poorer if it were not for the above-mentioned films, and others.
However, I am bothered by the recent spate of live action Disney remakes of animated features. It seems dismissive of the art of animation. How to categorize the different animation technology of new The Lion King is very annoying.
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I think you share an interesting and valid point of view. And I think ALL our viewing experiences suffer if not for re-interpretations. I haven’t seen and probably won’t be seeing the Disney remakes of animation classics – and I share the same concerns as you do.
Good post, Paul. I don’t mind multiple screen adaptations of novels or plays, but I can’t stand remakes of original films. What is the point? Why waste all that money, time and effort remaking something that was perfect in the first place? Rarely does any remake surpass the original version. Why not create something new and fresh instead?
Sadly the vast majority of what is made today seems to be either total rubbish, or nothing but remakes, prequels or sequels. I know that there were some remakes back in the classic film era, but nothing remotely like the vast amount that are made now. There is also hardly any originality left in filmmaking at the moment. TV is where you find all the originality and quality today in my opinion.
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Thanks Maddy. Sadly we have a trained audience and an industry who has trained that audience for a certain product. But then the audience being aimed at has dramatically changed over the years to a far younger one. I agree that originality and great storytelling is found in TV today and whilst some outstanding films are being made, they are drowned out by the noise of ‘blockbusters’ and don’t stay in cinemas long enough to build momentum. I also agree that the vast amounts of money spent on reboots would be better invested in new and fresh ideas.
Also that chariot race from the 1925 film!! That footage is amazing. I love that they had the chariots drive “over” the camera. It’s one of cinema’s truly remarkable scenes.
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“To remake or not to remake?” I love the parody of Hamlet’s existential question – a play remade of course several times (my preferred version is Lord Olivier’s, but Sir Kenneth Branagh’s 4-hour version is certainly definitive.) My first reaction when I hear of a remake (especially a modern remake of a classic film) is “Why? It was done perfectly the first time!” and generally avoid them. As your splendid article pointed out, there are remakes which we tend to forget are remakes. The 1941 “Maltese Falcon”, the quintessential detective movie. is certainly superior to the 1931 original, although the pre-code original did address some of the novel’s racier material, and both are leagues ahead of the 1936 adaptation “Satan Met a Lady”. The 1959 “Ben-Hur” is spectacular, although I do enjoy the silent version on its own terms (I did however think the 2016 version was totally needless.) Your example of “Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde” was particularly interesting; the Tracy version is fine, if seen on its own, but it does pale beside the 1932 version, which I believe MGM tried to suppress. I am still undecided about “Gaslight” – I love the 1944 version, but I think the 1940 British film has a more sinister feel. I respect the choices of every individual viewer, and certainly some people prefer a more modern take (colour over black-and-white, computer-generated effects, etc.) for their entertainment; I suppose, to be fair, remakes should be assessed on a case-by-case basis, although I certainly shudder at the thought of remaking “Gone with the Wind” or “Casablanca”, “sacred cows” in the classic film world.
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My first question when a remake is released is also ‘why’? – particularly in recent years. Sadly, I think the direct answer is sheer exploitation. There are quite a few solid remakes which don’t lose impact to textual integrity and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a good case in point; Spencer Tracy is fine but the 1932 version is superior. And yes, I’ve heard the same story that MGM tried to buy up all prints of the 1932 Paramount version and destroy them (What a tragedy that would have been!) You have me very interested in seeing the 1940 British version of Gaslight which I saw years ago and have not seen since. As much as I enjoy the Boyer/Bergman version, I’m curious to see the more sinister tone in the British one. I, too, enjoy the silent version of Ben Hur!
Speaking of Shakespeare…. If you’re going to be pedantic about it, Hamlet was a remake – there were stage versions of the story before he wrote his version. And the story of Romeo and Juliet was at least a century old…
One instructive case for remakes is “Invasion of the Body Snatchers”,which was remade a couple of times. The only good remake was the 1978 version, which moved the story from suburbia to San Francisco – and changed the tone from one of fear of suburban conformity (as you see it today, far from the commie menace) to one of urban alienation (how much do you really know about those people you pass by on the street every day?).
Unless you can bring something new to the story – better effects or a different take on the subject – don’t bother with a remake.
Hi Richard and I don’t think it’s pedantic to point out what you did regarding Shakespeare. Indeed, Romeo and Juliet is a good example and itself has been contextualised in its’ production throughout the years – case in point how Romeo and Juliet was staged with a ‘happy ending’ during the Victorian era or Lurhman’s film.
Invasion Of The Body Snatchers is an outstanding example and one where both films are valid and contextualised. And both good films!
I’ve also argued that remakes are worthy when they say something new or at least present themes and ideas in new and interesting ways.
Really appreciate your comments and visiting the blog!
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